Phylax Society - first German Shepherd Dog club

Max von Stephanitz and Horand
The Phylax Society was the first German Shepherd Dog club, formed with the intention of creating a standardised German dog breed.

Throughout Europe, unofficial groups had been operating to selectively breed dogs with profound qualities. While distinct breeds were being established they often differed dramatically, both in appearance and utility, across localities. As a result, in 1891 the Phylax Society (Phylax being Greek for "guardsman") was formed with the intention of creating a standardised German dog breed by hand-picking, from sheep dogs belonging to local German shepherds, those which displayed superior qualities than those of other dogs.

The official existence of the Phylax Society was short lived. Early in the group's history there was constant bickering regarding the desired traits of what would become the German Shepherd Dog. Some of the members felt aesthetics were not important in a dog breed, instead desiring that the dog be useful as a working breed, rather than having a pleasing look. Other members preferred that the dog be bred more for beauty with less of a focus on having a working breed. This argument was never settled and after numerous attempts to breed the German Shepherd dog failed by producing dogs with little to no utility, many of the members left; resulting in the Phylax Society disbanding in 1894, only four years after its establishment.

Post-Phylax Society
Although the Phylax Society had disbanded, many former members continued in attempts to breed a dog with superior qualities. It was due to the original formation of the Phylax Society that Max von Stephanitz was inspired to form the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (Society for the German Shepherd Dog) in 1899, which ultimately lead to the creation of the modern German Shepherd Dog breed.
  Horand von Grafrath
Born December 30 1864 in Dresden into German nobility, Max von Stephanitz is credited with having developed the German Shepherd Dog breed as it is currently known, set guidelines for the breed standard and was the first president of the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (S.V.).

Stephanitz was a career cavalry officer and former student of the Berlin Veterinary College.  At the college he gained valuable knowledge about biology, anatomy and the science of movement all of which he later applied to the breeding of dogs.

Stephanitz purchased property near Grafrath in the 1890s where he began experimenting with dog breeding.  He used many of the techniques utilised by English dog breeders of the period.  Stephanitz enjoyed attending dog shows and observed that there were many different types of shepherding dogs in use in Germany but there was no breed standardization.  He greatly admired those dogs with a wolf-ish appearance and prick ears who also were intelligent, had sharp senses and a willingness to work.  In 1899 while attending a show in Karlsruhe he was shown a dog named Hektor Kinksrhein.  Hektor was the product of many generations of selective breeding and completely fulfilled what von Stephanitz believed a working dog should be.  He was pleased with the strength of the dog and was so taken by the animal's intelligence and loyalty that he purchased it immediately.  After purchasing the dog he changed it name to Horand von Grafrath

Horand was used as the primary breeding stud by von Stephanitz and other breeders and is the foundation of the German Shepherd breed as we know it.  Stephanitz used the knowledge he had acquired during his years at the Veterinary College and established a 'grand design' he wanted breeders to aim for with judging based on angle of bones, proportions and overall measurements.

Horand became the centre-point of the breeding program and was bred with dogs that displayed the required desirable traits.  Although fathering many pups, Horand's most successful son was Hektor von Schwaben.  Hektor was inbred with another of Horand's offspring and produced Beowulf, who later fathered a total of eighty-four pups, mostly through being inbred with Hektor's other offspring.  Beowulf's progeny also were inbred and it is from these pups that all German Shepherds draw a genetic link.

Horand was declared to be the first German Shepherd Dog and was the first dog added to the register of the  Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde.

Sieger 1925 Sieger 1951 Sieger 1972

Klodo vom Boxberg Rolf vom Osnabrücker Land Marko vom Cellerland

                          Sieger 1990 & 1991
                         Fanto vom Hirschel
                                         Sieger 2006
                                          Zamp vom Thermodos

Eye Disorders in a German Shepherd By Wildwater Wolf

German Shepherds are susceptible to eye disorders, as well as diseases of the eyeball and the eyelid, cancers, cataracts and eye-related allergies. While most general practice veterinarians are qualified to treat dogs with eye diseases, veterinary ophthalmology specialists are the best doctors to consult when dealing with serious eye disorders in dogs.

The most common eye disorder in German Shepherds is pannus, sometimes called German Shepherd dog keratitis. Pannus is a chronic inflammation of the corneal surface and, in most cases, of the conjunctiva, a thin membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelid and the white part of the eyeball. The disease primarily occurs in German Shepherds, beginning when dogs are between 3 and 5 years old. The inflammation appears in the outer edges of the cornea and often affects both eyes simultaneously. Without treatment, the inflammation may progress, cover the entire cornea and lead to blindness.

Causes of Pannus
Pannus is an autoimmune condition, in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues. German Shepherds have a breed-dependent inherited predisposition to this disease, and an increased incidence of pannus during sunny months has been ascribed to their sensitivity to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight that seem to trigger the disease.

Treatment of Pannus
As of 2010, there is no cure for pannus. The treatment goal is to control the active phase of the disorder as quickly as possible, to avoid further outbreaks and to minimize the serious consequences of the disease. Veterinarians use cortisone therapy to treat pannus, first with injections and then with owners at home with frequent applications of cortisone ointment. Owners eventually will apply a daily maintenance dose over the dog's lifetime. An alternative treatment is long-term application of a topical ointment containing cyclosporine.

Pannus can decrease a dog's vision if left untreated and a thick mucous discharge often accompanies the eye redness. Treatment of pannus also includes tear stimulants and, according to the Dog Cataracts website, "Newer technologies that treat eye infections in dogs include a bioadhesive ophthalmic drug insert which can be placed in the eye to avoid the daily treatment and make compliance with treatment easier."

German Shepherd owners should consult with their veterinarians regularly about ongoing treatment and protect their dog's eyes from ultraviolet light, especially direct sun exposure.

Disease of the Eyeball
An epibulbar dermoid is a congenital condition found in German Shepherds. It usually affects one eye and appears as a fleshy, hairy, pigmented area on the eyeball, most often on the cornea.

Diseases of the Eyelid
Eversion of the third eyelid cartilage is a condition in which the cartilage of the third eyelid rolls outwards or inwards like a scroll. The condition may cause one or both eyes to weep, if tears cannot drain properly. If left untreated, discomfort due to the eyelid rubbing on the surface of the cornea can lead to the development of a corneal ulcer. Treatment for this involves surgical removal of the affected piece of cartilage.

Plasma cell infiltration of the third eyelid with loss of the normal black pigmentation along the edge of the eyelid is another eye disorder that occurs in German Shepherds.

The German Shepherd breed is predisposed to eye melanomas, including anterior uveal melanoma of the iris or ciliary body, and limbal melanoma, ocular tumors that occur most frequently in 5 to 6 year old female German Shepherds. According to DogTime, the National Canine Cancer Foundation reports, "These lesions have so far proved to be benign in nature but quick medical intervention is important."

Relative IgA deficiency and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in German shepherd dogs.

Batt RM, Barnes A, Rutgers HC, Carter SD.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Liverpool.

Serum immunoglobulin concentrations and densities of IgA-producing immunocytes in intestinal mucosa were compared in a group of clinically healthy dogs of various breeds, a group of clinically healthy German shepherd dogs, and a group of German shepherds with bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine. Serum concentrations of IgA, but not IgM or IgG, were significantly lower in the clinically healthy German shepherd dogs than in other purebreed and mixbreed dogs, indicating that production of IgA by gut-associated lymphoid tissue might be relatively low in this breed. However, densities of IgA-producing cells were not significantly different comparing these two groups, suggesting that any impairment of mucosal IgA production is more likely to be related to defective synthesis or secretion of IgA than to reduced numbers of IgA-producing immunocytes. Comparable findings in German shepherd dogs with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth provided further indirect evidence that local immunity might be defective in this breed, since these luminal bacteria would be expected to stimulate mucosal IgA production. However, it is not clear whether such a defect is directly responsible for the overgrowth, or whether there is an indirect relationship between defective local immunity and bacterial overgrowth in German shepherd dogs.

Training Your GSD (German Shepherd Dog)

German Shepherd dogs need lots of training. What do you do when training your GSD? Learn more about training your German Shepherd Dog and why you should do so.

Puppy Owns German Shepherd

Puppy is a mutt: Mix of a Chihuahua, Pomeranian, and Yorkie.
Both dogs are very well behaved and trained very well. This is still one of their games. The GS taunts her to get whatever toy it has.

German Shepherd Coat Colors - GSD Coat Colors and Patterns

Concerning German Shepherd coat colors & patterns, the German Shepherd Dog comes in several colors, patterns & coat lengths.

8 tips to care your German shepherd dog

1> Keep your shepherd's weight down. Overweight dogs will have more health problems, including heart trouble and arthritis.

2> Learn what health problems are associated with this breed: Von Willebrand's disease (a blood disorder), glaucoma, torsion (stomach bloat, a very serious emergency), cataracts, calcium gout, chronic pancreatitis, hip and elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hemophilia, slipped discs and retinal atrophy.

3> Brush your German shepherd daily if possible. This breed sheds year-round and heavily twice a year when the undercoat comes out.

4>Bathe the dog infrequently; shepherds don't require special grooming and can be washed at home.

5> Make sure to trim this dog's nails regularly - every two weeks - to prevent foot problems.

6> Remember that German shepherds are eager to please and very intelligent. You must be consistent and firm while training them.

7> Keep your shepherd indoors or out. Remember that she'll be much happier indoors with the family, since these dogs prefer to be with their pack.

8> Be prepared to enjoy a good 10 to 13 years with your shepherd, as this is the average life expectancy for a German shepherd.

You'll Need:

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  •     Dog Bones
  •     Dog Brushes
  •     Dog Dishes
  •     Dog Food
  •     Dog Leashes
  •     Dog Shampoo
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  •     Hand Vacuum Cleaners
  •     Nail Clippers For Dogs
  •     Reduced-calorie Dog Food
  •     Dog Shampoo

Belgian Shepherd (Tervuren)

The Tervuren (pronounced /tərˈvjɜrɛn/,and sometimes spelled Tervueren), is a member of the Belgian Shepherd Dog family of dog breeds. Its classification varies, being classified under some breed standards as a breed in its own right, and in others as one of several acceptable variations of the Belgian. It is usually listed within breed standards under one or other, or a combination, of these names.

In the United States, since 1960, the AKC recognizes it under the name Belgian Tervuren. Prior to that date, all recognized varieties of the Belgians were called Belgian Sheepdog.

In Canada, the Canadian Kennel Club recognizes the Tervuren as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog (prior to 2005, Belgian Shepherd Dogs were called Belgian Sheepdogs).

Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Tervuren is a medium-sized, square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family. Males stand between 24 and 26 inches, and weigh approximately 65 lb. Females are finer and smaller. It is recognized by its thick double coat, generally mahogany with varying degrees of black overlay (completely missing overlay on males is a serious fault), including a black mask. A small patch of white on the chest is permissible, as well as white tips on toes. The Tervuren may also be sable or grey, but this may be penalized in the show ring in some countries according to the standard of the registering body.

Tervurens are highly energetic, intelligent dogs who require a job to keep them occupied. This can be herding, obedience, agility, flyball, tracking, or protection work. They are also found working as Search and Rescue (SAR) dogs, finding missing persons and avalanche victims. Tervurens that are not kept sufficiently busy can become hyperactive or destructive.

As companion animals, Tervurens are loyal and form strong bonds with their family, leading some to be shy around strangers. They are good watch dogs, being very observant and attentive to the slightest change in their environment. Some can be nervous, depending on breeding and early experiences, so care must be taken to adequately socialize Tervuren puppies to a wide variety of people and situations.

Tervuren at 7 monthsAs with all the Belgian Shepherd Dogs, Tervurens are not generally recommended to first-time dog owners due to their high maintenance level.

Adult males are distinctly masculine and females are likewise feminine. Their appearance projects alertness and elegance. The breed is known for its loyalty and versatility. Those who own them, report being charmed by their intelligence, trainability, and, perhaps most of all, their sense of humor. They excel in many kinds of activities. Today the breed is still relatively rare in the United States, but it is well-established.

Generally healthy, but Tervurens can have a susceptibility to hip dysplasia, epilepsy and some eye and skin problems.

The Tervuren has a thick, double coat similar to the Groenendael. Regular brushing is necessary to remove loose undercoat, but in general, the fur is not prone to matting. A properly textured Tervuren coat is slightly hard, laying flat against the body (unlike, for instance, the Samoyed's off-standing fur). It naturally sheds dirt and debris, but burrs and seeds may stick to the feathering on the legs.

The Tervuren is shown in a natural state, with minimal trimming and cosmetic products. Bathing, brushing, and trimming the fur on the feet with scissors to emphasize their tight, cat-footed shape is the extent of most exhibitors' grooming routines. Products that alter the coloration of the coat and masking are not allowed in the ring.

Belgian Shepherd Dog (Laekenois)

The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Laekenois) is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. The Laekenois is not fully recognized in the United States. However, they can be shown in Britain, Canada, Australia, and throughout Europe, along with all three of the closely related breeds which share a heritage with the Laekenois: the Tervuren, the Malinois, and the Groenendael, the last being shown in the U.S. as the Belgian Sheepdog.

Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Laekenois is a medium-sized, hard-working, square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family with sharply triangular ears. The Laekenois is recognized by its woolly brown and white coat, intermixed so as to give a tweedy appearance. Most kennel clubs' standards allow for black shading, principally in muzzle and tail, indicating the presence of the melanistic mask gene.

The Belgian Laekenois originated as a sheep herding dog at the Royal Castle of Laeken. It is considered both the oldest and the most rare of the Belgian Shepherd Dogs. Until the advent of dog shows in the early 1900's, the four varieties were freely intermixed, in fact, there are only three genes (short/long coat, smooth/wire coat, fawn/black coat) that separate the varieties genetically. Purebred Laekenois occasionally give birth to smooth-coated puppies, which, depending on the pure-bred registry, can be registered as Malinois.

Belgian Shepherd Dog (Groenendael)

The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Groenendael) The Groenendael is recognized by all major kennel clubs. In the United States it is recognized under the name Belgian Sheepdog.

Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Groenendael is a medium-sized, hard-working, square-proportioned breed of dog in the sheepdog family. The Groenendael is recognized by its distinctive black coat.

The Groenendael should be athletic, strong, imposing, rustic, and balanced in appearance. It should look natural, never as though it has been prepared just for the show ring. Its coat should be profuse, but never look as though it would inhibit the dog's working ability in any way. The colour is always black, with small white markings being allowed on the chest. When being shown, its handler should never have to force it into position; ideally the handler should not have to touch the dog at all.

The Groenendael should be 24-26 in. (60-66 cm) at the withers for males, and 22-24 in (56-62 cm) for females. The weight should be approximately 25 - 30 kg for males, and 20 - 25 kg for females.

The groenendael has a thin, double coat. The texture should be hard and dense, never woolly, silky, frizzy, fine, or wiry. The undercoat should be thick and profuse. In conformation shows, dogs without an undercoat are heavily penalized.

A Groenendael at 4 monthsThe Groenendael is (very) intelligent, active, loyal and quietly affectionate. Groenendaels are not a breed for the faint of heart. However for those who have plenty of time, energy, confidence and love, they are wonderful friends. Training and socializing is essential. They are wary of strangers and protective. They love children as long as they are introduced to them at an early age. The Groenendael bonds deeply to its people and cannot live outdoors or in a kennel. It needs to spend time with its family every day and may experience separation anxiety if left alone for long periods of time.

The Groenendael needs a large amount of exercise as a rule. Expect to spend about two hours a day working with it. Exercise should include not only a walk, but also a training session to keep the dog mentally stimulated. These dogs have great "work ethic" and need a job to do, such as obedience, flyball, schutzhund training, dog agility or livestock work in order to be happy. They are a sensitive breed and cannot be trained using harsh training methods. They need thorough grooming once a week, however when shedding (which happens once or twice a year) they lose massive amounts of coat and need grooming every day.

Belgian Shepherd Dog (Malinois)

The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Malinois) (pronounced /ˈmælɪnwɑː/) is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. The Malinois is recognized in the United States under the name Belgian Malinois. Its name is the French word for Mechlinian, which is in Dutch either Mechelse herdershond (shepherd dog from Mechelen) or Mechelaar (one from Mechelen).

Like all Belgian Shepherds, the Malinois is a medium-sized and square-proportioned dog in the sheepdog family. The Malinois has a short mahogany coat with black overlay. It has black erect ears and a black muzzle. It has a square build in comparison to the German Shepherd.
Coat and color
Due to its history as a working dog (i.e., being bred for function over form), the Malinois can vary greatly in appearance. The acceptable colors of pure-bred Malinois are a base color fawn to mahogany with a black mask and black ears with some degree of black tipping on the hairs, giving an overlay appearance. The color tends to be lighter with less black agouti or overlay on the dog's underside, breeching, and inner leg. There used to be dogs with grey and black shorthairs but they no longer meet the breed standards.

The other varieties of Belgian Shepherd are distinguished by their coats and colors: the Tervuren is the same color as the Malinois but grey is also possible with long hair, the Laekenois is the same color, only it may lack the black mask and ears, and has wirehair, the Groenendael (registered as Belgian Sheepdog by the American Kennel Club) has long hair and is solid black. There are (occasionally and historically) solid black, black-and-tan (as with Dobermans and German Shepherd Dogs), or other colored short-haired Belgian Shepherds, but these are not technically Malinois.

If a dog represented as a Malinois is brindle (clear stripes of different colored hair) it is probably a Dutch Shepherd Dog or a mixed breed, although the possibility exists that it is a throwback to a common continental shepherd ancestor.

Malinois dogs are about 24–26 in (61–66 cm), while bitches are about 22–24 in (56–61 cm) at the withers. Bitches are said to average 25–30 kg (55–65 lb), while sires are heavier at 29–34 kg (65–75 lb). They are squarely built.

Working dog
In Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and other European countries, as well as in the United States, Canada and Australia, the Malinois is bred primarily as a working dog for personal protection, detection, police work, search and rescue, and sport work (Belgian Ring, Schutzhund, French Ring, Mondio Ring). The United States Secret Service and Royal Australian Air Force use the breed exclusively.

The dog is also used extensively by Unit Oketz of the Israel Defense Forces. Oketz favors the slighter build of the Malinois to the German Shepherd and Rottweiler, which were employed formerly.

Well-raised and trained Malinois are usually active,friendly,protective and hard-working. Many have excessively high prey drive. Some may be excessively exuberant or playful, especially when young. They can be destructive or develop neurotic behaviors if not provided enough stimulation and exercise. These are large, strong dogs that require consistent obedience training, and Malinois enjoy being challenged with new tasks. They are known as being very easy to obedience train, due to their high drive for rewards.

The average lifespan of the Belgian Malinois is 10–12 years,and there are a number of health problems and disorders that are associated with the breed, though the breed's health is generally considered better than that of the German Shepherd Dog. Notable health problems prevalent to the Malinois includes cataracts,epilepsy,thyroid problems, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), hip dysplasia,and pannus, although these problems have been minimized through selective breeding.

Why Choose a German Shepherd Dog?

 German shepherds are medium to large dogs depending on their point of view. You will generally find that they are 22- 26 inches in height and 75- 95 pounds. German shepherds are also characterized by their hair color and face. A German shepherd is going to tan with black on the back, tail, and around the face. The muzzle is on the longer side for most dogs and proportionate to the head. You will also find that the German shepherd’s ears will stand up, but tend to curl just at the ends on some of them. The hair of a German shepherd is usually coarse and very thick. They are average shedders which means they need to be brushed at least twice a week if not more. During the warmer seasons they will need to be brushed daily. A wire brush will usually do the trick for grooming. Among other grooming needs you will need to clip their toenails usually once a month or maybe every two.

German shepherds need to have a lot of space. They do not do well cooped up in small homes. They need at least an hour of exercise each day if not twice that amount to remain fit and happy. You will find large homes with a moderate backyard and fence will fit them a lot better.

German shepherd’s are one of the most versatile dog breeds that you will ever find. Not only are these dogs used as police dogs, but they are also used in therapy, for seeing- eye dogs, and guard dogs. You will find no better companion when you look for a German shepherd dog. They are an extremely popular dog in several countries, especially America. It is important to understand how to care of this dog breed as well as some of the characteristics you should expect when you have one. We will also delve into their working side a little bit.

German shepherd training can go in several directions. You can train them for households or you can train them to work. When training them for work you may need to seek a professional. As guard dogs or police dogs a German shepherd undergoes hours of training not only in rescue, but in tackling a person with a gun. This means that they will spend puppy- hood with a trainer. They will most likely be attached to one person during training. In some cases with the German shepherd used as a police dog they will have the partner train with the dog. In most cases they will train separately and then go through more training with their actual partner. You will find as police dogs they are used for narcotics, as well as cadaver dogs because they do have a powerful sense of smell.

German shepherds have one of the most lovable temperaments of any dog. They are very affectionate, require a great amount of human interaction, and of course they need a lot of exercise. They are a very well muscled dog, which means that they are agile, quick, and very powerful. They may not be best around small children until after they have gone through training to make them more aware of their size and capabilities. You will find that they are really great at being trained, despite some tendency for stubbornness. It really takes a firm, but gentle hand. Among other characteristics you will find a calm behavior rather than rowdiness, and loyalty. Most often they do latch on to one master, but that doesn’t mean they won’t seek attention from anyone in the room.

About the Author:
Gerry Ronson writes for Dog Treats

East German Shepherd Dog

With the division of Germany into East and West the division was reflected in the breeding of the dog as well. No dog breed is as well known as the German shepherd dog. 

Whilst in the West they continue to breed after the typical ideal of the dog beauty, black-yellow, sloping back, where in the East the dogs were especially dark and the dogs had typical working dog confirmation.

He developed over the course of time on each page its own form. The sloping back, though not as pronounced, but in pictures of DDR dogs from the late eighties to be seen. 

After the fall of East Germany the two lines were reunited, so that today little more pure DDR lines available. The grey Shepherds DDR ancestors are now sought after, especially with dog breeders seeking good performance animals.

Furthermore, the previous genetic disorders of hip dysplasia that was deliberately used in selective breeding to improve the color of the dogs in the West did not occur in east Germany where the breed was kept purer.

Few voices are raised to keep the Ostlinie blood lines going in the shepherd and recognized this blood line as a separate breed, but this is not supported by the SV. There are several associations for the preservation of the East German Shepherd Dog. It is debatable if this desire is implementable to sustain the old breed as the gene pool by now is probably too low

Wolf German shepherd

At the beginning of the pure breeding of this dog, a hairy type of animal began to emerge and some breeders thought that they could achieve a breed type faster if they bred the dogs back with real wolves.

Hans Raber wrote in his Encyclopedia of the Dog. Stephanitz should therefore have indicated that the great grandmother of the breeding males of “Hector of Wohlen,” the bitch “Mores Plieningen,” is descended from a cross between a wolf and sheep dog. He should have corrected this statement later by saying that they had crossing the males Hector being already six generations old. 
Räber reported that A. Heim was firmly convinced that from 1870 to 1900 in Germany wolves were again crossed with sheepdogs. Supposedly this was to protect the breed from distemper. This had led since 1920 that the opinion of the natural deterioration of the shepherds is due to these crossings.
It is now recommended that breeders keep all dogs with wolf characteristics out of the breed. Heim’s statements are not considered as totally reliable.

Raber’s opinion is that the story of the wolf crossings was to make the dogs more desirable because of the wolfs popularity amongst fans rather than the fact that it was actually done.

There were hundreds of these wolf stories races that were talked of. The professional sentiment from people like Schafer and R. Wolf Burger, the president of the SC from 1933 to 1936 and from Stephanitz in 1902, was that these crossings were discouraged because the dogs from such matings in their view were not reliable.
It is considered unlikely then that these experiments may have had an influence on today’s German shepherd. As the offspring were also considered inadequate, so it is most likely that there was no impact on the breed. Even in the event that there was an impact on the breeding it is assumed that they would not have accepted the breed if it looked more like a wolf in appearance than the Alsatian.

The sheep dog as a breeding base for other dog breeds
The shepherd is the breed basis for several other breeds of dogs that are also authorizedby the FCI. The best known example of the Berger Blanc Suisse, the white shepherd, whose close relationship is obvious to the German Shepherd. 

Another breed resulted from matings of the shepherd with the wolves and the Czechoslovakian wolf dog and is called the Saarloos wolf dog. The aim of both breed types was to improve the German Shepherd, which is generally considered a failure, as these dogs are suitable only for very limited use as a working dog. 

There are three other wolf hybrid breeds, the dog Lupo Italiano, the Kunming Wolf-dog and the Timber Wolf-Shepherd. The Shepherd was the breeding base in all cases. However, they are still not recognized by the FCI. The shepherd was also not crossed by the FCI recognized breeds such as the Tamaskan.

Total German Shepherd Dog Secrets

Old german shepherd breed

Steven Seagal Trains German Shepherd

Bite force competition Between Rottweiler, German Shepherd, and Pitbull.

Dogs 101 German Shepherd Video Animal Planet

White Shepherd Dog breed

The White Shepherd Dog emerged from white coat lines of the German Shepherd Dog. It has been recognized (on a provisional basis) as a breed by the FCI on 26/11/2002.

In German Shepherd Dogs the recessive gene for white coat hair was cast in the breed gene pool by the late 19th and early 20th century breeding program that developed and expanded the German Shepherd Dog breed in Germany. A white herding dog named Greif was the grandfather of Horand von Grafrath, the dog acknowledged as the foundation of all contemporary German Shepherd Dog bloodlines.

Information provided in early books on the German Shepherd Dog make mention of Greif and other white German herding dogs, with upright ears and a general body description that resembles modern German Shepherd Dogs, shown in Europe as early as 1882. The early 20th century German Shepherd breeding program extensively line bred and inbred "color coat" dogs that carried Greif's recessive gene for "white coats" to refine and expand the population of early German Shepherd Dogs. White coats were made a disqualification in the German Shepherd Dog Club of Germany breed standard in 1933 after the breed club came under the control of the German Nazi party that took over all aspects of German society in February 1933 when Hitler declared a state of emergency. The German breed standard remained unchanged as German breeders repopulated the breed in the years after the conclusion of WWII.

In 1959 the German Shepherd Dog Club of America (GSDCA) adopted the exclusively colored breed standard of the parent German breed club. White-coated German Shepherd Dogs were officially barred from competition in the American Kennel Club conformation ring in the United States starting in 1968. AKC-registered white German Shepherd Dogs may still compete in performance events.

During the 1970s, white dog fanciers in the United States and Canada formed their own "White German Shepherd" breed clubs, breeding and showing their dogs at small specialty dog shows throughout North America.

The White Shepherd Club of Canada (WSCC) has been dedicated to the promotion and preservation of the White Shepherd since 1971. Originally formed as a Chapter of the White German Shepherd Dog Club of America, the club was renamed White Shepherd Club of Canada in 1973. Its first conformation show was held that year with 8 dogs entered and 25 people in attendance.

In Canada, the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) is incorporated under the Animal Pedigree Act, a federal statute under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, which is the governing body that sets down recognition and standards for all pure animal breeds. For a long time, Agriculture Canada had protected white German Shepherds from the many attempts by the German Shepherd Dog Club of Canada to have white dogs disqualified from the CKC conformation ring, as had long been the case in the USA. Some brave members of WSCC had shown in the CKC breed rings and had even accumulated points toward their dogs' CKC Championships. Unfortunately, that would all change in 1998, when the color white was officially disqualified from the CKC German Shepherd breed standard.

Disappointed but undeterred, the WSCC continues to work toward full breed recognition of the White Shepherd as a separate breed with the CKC. The club hosts shows several times a year, often in combination with the American White Shepherd Association. Event dates and locations are published in the club's newsletter and on its web site.

In September 1995, a small group of fanciers of the white-coated German Shepherd Dog established the American White Shepherd Association (AWSA), a new club to advance, promote and protect the White Shepherd breed in the United States. In cooperation with the White Shepherd Club of Canada, AWSA wrote and published a new breed standard, and eventually petitioned the American Kennel Club for full recognition as a unique pure breed, separate from and independent of the German Shepherd Dog. As of this writing, AKC has not granted recognition or registration for the White Shepherd breed, but the breeders, fanciers and members of AWSA carry on with independently-held club activities as well as running and maintaining the private club registry. AWSA continues to negotiate with the AKC for breed recognition as well as with the German Shepherd Dog Club of America (GSDCA) for breed separation. Until such time as GSDCA can be persuaded to grant official release of the white dogs, AKC must continue to register all white German Shepherd Dogs born from two AKC-registered German Shepherd parents as German Shepherd Dogs.

In 1999, a group of AWSA members organized and established the United White Shepherd Club (UWSC) as a United Kennel Club affiliated parent club. They immediately petitioned for a new White Shepherd breed classification within UKC. The United Kennel Club accepted the UWSC's petition and created a new and separate White Shepherd breed conformation standard and registry. The White Shepherd breed was officially recognized by UKC on April 14, 1999. Today, United Kennel Club recognizes both the White Shepherd breed standard as well as the original German Shepherd Dog breed conformation standard where white and colored dogs continue to be considered together as one breed.

Neither UKC nor AWSA-registered White Shepherds can be registered with FCI as White Swiss Shepherd Dogs (Berger Blanc Suisse). Breed clubs associated with each of these unique breed lines maintain their own breed standards for appearance and temperament. The breed "appearance" standard given below is appropriate to the UKC-registered White Shepherd Dog and, with a few very minor changes - mostly in wording and layout - to the written standard of the AWSA club as well.

No matter which country they hail from, White Shepherds excel in performance events such as competition obedience and rally obedience, tracking, flyball and agility. Many fine dogs have also earned titles in herding, proving that the herding instinct and ability has been retained in this versatile breed.

German Shepherd Dog Breed Standard

General Appearance
The first impression of a good German Shepherd Dog is that of a strong, agile, well muscled animal, alert and full of life. It is well balanced, with harmonious development of the forequarter and hindquarter. The dog is longer than tall, deep-bodied, and presents an outline of smooth curves rather than angles. It looks substantial and not spindly, giving the impression, both at rest and in motion, of muscular fitness and nimbleness without any look of clumsiness or soft living. The ideal dog is stamped with a look of quality and nobility--difficult to define, but unmistakable when present. Secondary sex characteristics are strongly marked, and every animal gives a definite impression of masculinity or femininity, according to its sex.

The breed has a distinct personality marked by direct and fearless, but not hostile, expression, self-confidence and a certain aloofness that does not lend itself to immediate and indiscriminate friendships. The dog must be approachable, quietly standing its ground and showing confidence and willingness to meet overtures without itself making them. It is poised, but when the occasion demands, eager and alert; both fit and willing to serve in its capacity as companion, watchdog, blind leader, herding dog, or guardian, whichever the circumstances may demand. The dog must not be timid, shrinking behind its master or handler; it should not be nervous, looking about or upward with anxious expression or showing nervous reactions, such as tucking of tail, to strange sounds or sights. Lack of confidence under any surroundings is not typical of good character. Any of the above deficiencies in character which indicate shyness must be penalized as very serious faults and any dog exhibiting pronounced indications of these must be excused from the ring. It must be possible for the judge to observe the teeth and to determine that both testicles are descended. Any dog that attempts to bite the judge must be disqualified. The ideal dog is a working animal with an incorruptible character combined with body and gait suitable for the arduous work that constitutes its primary purpose.

Size, Proportion, Substance
The desired height for males at the top of the highest point of the shoulder blade is 24 to 26 inches; and for bitches, 22 to 24 inches.

The German Shepherd Dog is longer than tall, with the most desirable proportion as 10 to 8½. The length is measured from the point of the prosternum or breastbone to the rear edge of the pelvis, the ischial tuberosity. The desirable long proportion is not derived from a long back, but from overall length with relation to height, which is achieved by length of forequarter and length of withers and hindquarter.

The head is noble, cleanly chiseled, strong without coarseness, but above all not fine, and in proportion to the body. The head of the male is distinctly masculine, and that of the bitch distinctly feminine.

The expression keen, intelligent and composed. Eyes of medium size, almond shaped, set a little obliquely and not protruding. The color is as dark as possible. Ears are moderately pointed, in proportion to the skull, open toward the front, and carried erect when at attention, the ideal carriage being one in which the center lines of the ears, viewed from the front, are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the ground. A dog with cropped or hanging ears must be disqualified.

Seen from the front the forehead is only moderately arched, and the skull slopes into the long, wedge-shaped muzzle without abrupt stop. The muzzle is long and strong, and its topline is parallel to the topline of the skull. Nose black. A dog with a nose that is not predominantly black must be disqualified. The lips are firmly fitted. Jaws are strongly developed. Teeth --42 in number--20 upper and 22 lower--are strongly developed and meet in a scissors bite in which part of the inner surface of the upper incisors meet and engage part of the outer surface of the lower incisors. An overshot jaw or a level bite is undesirable. An undershot jaw is a disqualifying fault. Complete dentition is to be preferred. Any missing teeth other than first premolars is a serious fault.

German Shepherd Dog Breed Info

German Shepherds are a medium sized dog which generally are between 55 and 65 centimetres (22 and 26 in) at the withers and weigh between 22 and 40 kilograms (49 and 88 lb).The ideal height is 63 centimetres (25 in), according to Kennel Club standards.They have a domed forehead, a long square-cut muzzle and a black nose. The jaws are strong, with a scissor-like bite. The eyes are medium-sized and brown with a lively, intelligent, and self-assured look. The ears are large and stand erect, open at the front and parallel, but they often are pulled back during movement. They have a long neck, which is raised when excited and lowered when moving at a fast pace. The tail is bushy and reaches to the hock.[German Shepherds are a medium sized dog which generally are between 55 and 65 centimetres (22 and 26 in) at the withers and weigh between 22 and 40 kilograms (49 and 88 lb).The ideal height is 63 centimetres (25 in), according to Kennel Club standards.They have a domed forehead, a long square-cut muzzle and a black nose. The jaws are strong, with a scissor-like bite. The eyes are medium-sized and brown with a lively, intelligent, and self-assured look. The ears are large and stand erect, open at the front and parallel, but they often are pulled back during movement. They have a long neck, which is raised when excited and lowered when moving at a fast pace. The tail is bushy and reaches to the hock.

German Shepherds can be a variety of colours, the most common of which are the tan/black and red/black varieties. Both varieties have black masks and black body markings which can range from a classic "saddle" to an over-all "blanket." Rarer colour variations include the sable, all-black, all-white, liver, and blue varieties. The all-black and sable varieties are acceptable according to most standards; however, the blue and liver are considered to be serious faults and the all-white is grounds for instant disqualification in some standards.This is because the white coat is more visible, making the dog a poor guard dog, and harder to see in conditions such as snow or when herding sheep.

German Shepherds sport a double coat. The outer coat, which is shed all year round, is close and dense with a thick undercoat. The coat is accepted in two variants; medium and long. The long-hair gene is recessive, making the long-hair variety rarer. Treatment of the long-hair variation differs across standards; they are accepted under the German and UK Kennel Clubs but are considered a fault in the American Kennel Club.


German Shepherds were bred specifically for their intelligence,a trait for which they are now renowned.They are considered to be the third most intelligent breed of dog, behind Border Collies and Poodles.In the book The Intelligence of Dogs, author Stanley Coren ranked the breed third for intelligence. He found that they had the ability to learn simple tasks after only five repetitions and obeyed the first command given 95% of the time.Coupled with their strength, this trait makes the breed desirable as police, guard, and search and rescue dogs, as they are able to quickly learn various tasks and interpret instructions better than other large breeds.

Aggression and biting

German Shepherd Dogs have a reputation among some individuals for biting and have been banned in some jurisdictions as a result.However, German Shepherd Dogs are among the top five most popular dogs in the United States according to American Kennel Club statistics and well-trained and socialized German Shepherd Dogs have a reputation among many as being very safe (see Temperament section below). In the United States, one source suggests that German Shepherd Dogs are responsible for more reported bitings than any other breed, and suggest a tendency to attack smaller breeds of dogs.An Australian report from 1999 provides statistics showing that German Shepherd Dogs are the third breed most likely to attack a person in some Australian locales.

However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which advises on dog bite prevention and related matters, states "There is currently no accurate way to identify the number of dogs of a particular breed, and consequently no measure to determine which breeds are more likely to bite or kill."Similarly, the American Veterinary Medical Association through its Task Force on Canine Aggression and Canine-Human Interactions reports, "There are several reasons why it is not possible to calculate a bite rate for a breed or to compare rates between breeds. First, the breed of the biting dog may not be accurately recorded, and mixed-breed dogs are commonly described as if they were purebreds. Second, the actual number of bites that occur in a community is not known, especially if they did not result in serious injury. Third, the number of dogs of a particular breed or combination of breeds in a community is not known, because it is rare for all dogs in a community to be licensed, and existing licensing data is then incomplete." Moreover, studies rely on 'reported' bites, leading the National Geographic Channel television show, The Dog Whisperer to conclude that small dog breeds are likely responsible for more bites than large dog breeds, but often go unreported.In addition, according to the National Geographic Channel television show, Dangerous Encounters, the bite of a German Shepherd Dog has a force of over 238-450 pounds (compared with that of a Rottweiler, over 300 pounds of force, a Pitbull, 235 pounds of force, a Labrador Retriever, of approximately 125 pounds of force, or a human, of approximately 170 pounds of force), which means it is important to note the impact that 'reported' bites and serious injury have on any dog bite studies and to distinguish a dog attack from 'aggression'.Regardless, one source indicates that fatalities have been attributed to over 30 breeds since 1975, including small breeds, such as the Pomeranian.

These claims have also been disputed on the statistical basis that German Shepherds represent a higher proportion of the population than other breeds and also because of the use of German Shepherd Dogs as protection dogs, which would require controlling statistical data for "pet" or "companion" use and not military, police or guard use.It is also important to note that German Shepherds are very common in cross-bred canines.[citation needed] And due to their popularity the layman will likely recognize most GSD cross-breeds simply as "German Shepherd," if a report is ever filed.[citation needed]

Introduction of German Shepherd Dog breed (Alsatian) (Deutscher Schaferhund)

German Shepherd Dog breed (Alsatian) (Deutscher Schaferhund)
German Shepherd Dog breed (Alsatian) (Deutscher Schaferhund)

The German Shepherd Dog (GSD, also known as an Alsatian), (German: Deutscher Schäferhund) is a breed of medium-sized dog that originated in Germany.German Shepherds are a relatively new breed of dog, whose origins date to 1899. As part of the Herding group, the German Shepherd is a working dog developed originally for herding sheep. Because of their strength, intelligence and abilities in obedience training they are often employed in police and military roles, in forces around the world.Due to their loyal and protective nature, the German Shepherd is one of the most registered of breeds.


In Europe during the 1800s, attempts were being made to standardize breeds.The dogs were bred to preserve traits that assisted in their job of herding sheep and protecting flocks from predators. In Germany this was practiced within local communities, where shepherds selected and bred dogs that they believed had traits necessary for herding sheep, such as intelligence, strength, and keen senses of smell. The results were dogs that were able to perform admirably in their task, but that differed significantly, both in appearance and ability, from one locality to another.

To combat these differences, the Phylax Society was formed in 1891 with the intention of creating standardised dog breeds in Germany. The society disbanded after only three years due to an ongoing, internal conflict regarding the traits that the society should promote; some members believed dogs should be bred solely for working purposes, while others believed dogs should be bred also for appearance.While unsuccessful in their goal, the Phylax Society had inspired people to pursue standardising dog breeds independently.

Max von Stephanitz, an ex-cavalry captain and former student of the Berlin Veterinary College, was one such ex-member. He believed strongly that dogs should be bred for working.
A German night-watchman from 1950 with his dog

In 1899, Von Stephanitz was attending a dog show when he was shown a dog named Hektor Linksrhein. Hektor was the product of many generations of selective breeding and completely fulfilled what Von Stephanitz believed a working dog should be. He was pleased with the strength of the dog and was so taken by the animal's intelligence and loyalty, that he purchased it immediately.After purchasing the dog he changed its name to Horand von Grafrath and Von Stephanitz founded the Verein für Deutsche Schäferhunde (Society for the German Shepherd Dog).Horand was declared to be the first German Shepherd Dog and was the first dog added to the society's breed register.

Horand became the centre-point of the breeding programs and was bred with dogs belonging to other society members that displayed desirable traits. Although fathering many pups, Horand's most successful was Hektor von Schwaben.Hektor was inbred with another of Horand's offspring and produced Beowulf, who later fathered a total of eighty-four pups, mostly through being inbred with Hektor's other offspring.Beowulf's progeny also were inbred and it is from these pups that all German Shepherds draw a genetic link. It is believed the society accomplished its goal mostly due to Von Stephanitz's strong, uncompromising leadership and he is therefore credited with being the creator of the German Shepherd Dog.


When the UK Kennel Club first accepted registrations for the breed in 1919, fifty-four dogs were registered, and by 1926 this number had grown to over 9,000.The breed first gained international recognition at the decline of World War I after returning soldiers spoke highly of the breed, and animal actors Rin Tin Tin and Strongheart popularised the breed further.The first German Shepherd Dog registered in the United States was Queen of Switzerland; however, her offspring suffered from defects as the result of poor breeding, which caused the breed to suffer a decline in popularity during the late 1920s.Popularity increased again after the German Shepherd Sieger Pfeffer von Bern became the 1937 and 1938 Grand Victor in American Kennel club dog shows, only to suffer another decline at the conclusion of World War II, due to anti-German sentiment of the time.As time progressed, their popularity increased gradually until 1993, when they became the third most popular breed in the United States, a position the breed still holds. Additionally, the breed is typically among the most popular in other registries.


The breed was named Deutscher Schäferhund by Von Stephanitz, literally translating to "German Shepherd Dog". The breed was so named due its original purpose of assisting shepherds in herding and protecting sheep. At the time, all other herding dogs in Germany were referred to by this name; they thus became known as Altdeutsche Schäferhunde or Old German Shepherd Dogs. Shepherds were first exported to Britain in 1908, and the UK Kennel Club began to recognise the breed in 1919.

The direct translation of the name was adopted for use in the official breed registry; however, at the conclusion of World War I, it was believed that the inclusion of the word "German" would harm the breed's popularity,due to the anti-German sentiment of the era.The breed was officially renamed by the UK Kennel Club to "Alsatian Wolf Dog" which was also adopted by many other international kennel clubs. Eventually, the appendage "wolf dog" was dropped.The name Alsatian remained for five decades,until 1977, when successful campaigns by dog enthusiasts pressured the British kennel clubs to allow the breed to be registered again as German Shepherd Dogs.